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The Crucial Protection Parts & Sensors in Energy Storage System

Time:2023-08-17 10:24:46Hits:57

As we all know, electricity energy storage is one of the key methods to solve the problem of power peak cut, and meet the needs of renewable energy. It is also an important way to improve the utilization rate of power generation equipment, improve the overall operating efficiency of the power grid, thereby achieving demand side management, reaching dual carbon goal, and fulfilling the energy revolution. This is also the reason why energy storage has been maintaining a high growth rate in recent years - especially in Europe, North America, Oceania and other regions where quite tight in energy supply or electricity costs are high.

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According to the statistics of professional institutions, the worldwide installed capacity of ESS - Energy Storage Systems reached approximately 143GWh in 2022, YOY increased 204%! The chart below shows the regional distribution of global energy storage shipments in 2021.

At the same time, in addition to reliability and other factors in the design process of energy storage system, the safety of the system itself is the most important and fundamental, and also a comprehensive consideration of the ability to give safety trust and protection to the surroundings. Therefore, what kind of crucial sensors and protective components are required in the ESS? Let’s take the industrial and commercial ESS as an example for further discussion.


The design of larger battery capacity layout can achieve ESS longer battery discharge time. Meanwhile, each battery cell in the battery pack represents an energy source, and any short circuit or malfunction in the system will probably cause a large amount of energy pour-out, and accompanying high voltage and high current likely to cause huge personnel injury, as well as the risk of assets losses of ESS itself and the surrounding properties.Fuses, for over-current protection (or short circuit protection), playing a very crucial role in the circuit safety protection of ESS, are mainly used in battery modules, battery clusters, whole ESS circuit, AC/DC inverters.

In a distributed ESS or industrial containerized ESS, a battery cluster consists of multiple battery packs (pack consist of multiple battery cells), and connecting multiple rows of battery clusters in series constitutes the entire ESS. A typical application case is that certain quantity of fuses in battery pack for independent sub-branch current control, some in battery cluster for branch control, and one in the overall cabinet for main circuit protection and control.

1.1 BatteryPacks

Generally, one fuse in each battery pack for sub-branch protection, key parameters as follows:

DC250V _Rated Voltage

200~450A _Rated Current

DC50kA(10~15ms) _Sectional Capacity

IEC60269, IEC60077, UL248 _Compliance Standards


One fuse in each battery cluster for over-current protection, key parameters as follows:

DC1500V _Rated Voltage

100~450A _Rated Current

DC 150kA(10~15ms) _Sectional Capacity

IEC60269, UL248 _Compliance Standards

1.3ESS Whole System

One fuse in whole system for overall protection, key parameters as follows:

DC1500V _Rated Voltage

450~1800A _Rated Current

DC 150kA(10~15ms) _Sectional Capacity

DC 250kA(≤4ms)

IEC60269, UL248 _Compliance Standards

DC1500V _Rated Voltage

3000A _Rated Current

DC 150kA(10ms)

DC 250kA(4ms) _Sectional Capacity

IEC60269 _Compliance Standards


When the energy storage cabinet is charged and discharged, the current sensor detects the current value passing through, with algorithm to calculate the power status of the entire energy storage cabinet in order to monitor and prevent overcharge and over discharge. The accuracy of the current value is directly related to the calculation accuracy of SOC ( or battery remaining power), the higher accuracy of the sensor means the more accurate the calculation, and the more capable it is to achieve the EMS safety monitoring and management.

CSHV、CSNV _Typical Product Series

Hall _Measurement Principle

5V/12V _Power Supply Voltage

100~1500A _Measurement Range

±2.0%/±0.5% _Accuracy

0.5~4.5V/CAN _Output


In energy storage systems, accidents caused by leakage of batteries due to thermal runaway are the industry's biggest risk points. The NFPA of the United States has issued an installation standard "NFPA 855" specifically for ESS, which strictly regulates the system capacity and installation distance of ESS batteries. However, related fire accidents still occur repeatedly around the world.

However, the risk of battery leakage can also be prevented and controlled through technical means. Let’s see several approaches to leak detection:

3.1Battery Leakage Detection

For example, in a lithium ion ESS, when the battery at early stage of a failure mode, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, alkanes, alkenes, and halogens may overflow from the battery; The sooner and earlier these gases are detected, the more time users have to take measures to avoid catastrophic thermal runaway failures. Honeywell GAS's products cover all of the above hazardous gas detection and sensing categories, helping customers design an effective early leak detection system.

3.1.1 CO: Ecosure

CO detection, millions of pieces yearly sold worldwide.

0~500ppm _Measurement Range

< 30s _Response Time

3.1.2 H2: 4HYT

Hydrogen detection, safe detection proven more than 10 years.

0~1000ppm _Measurement Range

< 60s _Response Time

3.1.3 O2: 4Oxv

Oxygen detection, No.1 in the market.

0~30%VOL _Measurement Range

< 15s _Response Time

3.2 Thermal Runaway Detection & Alarm

When the battery enters the failure mode, the temperature and pressure in the ESS cabin will change sharply, and hazardous gas will overflow accompanied by the generation of suspended particles. Through detecting pressure and particulate matter, the system BMS can make more timely, comprehensive, and accurate judgments to stop the operation of battery charging and discharging and terminate ESS operation, and trigger the fire extinguisher system if necessary. Meanwhile, multi-sensor fusion can also prevent equipment downtime losses and maintenance troubles caused by certain type of component’s misjudged "anomalies" in the system.

3.2.1 Detection Medium: Absolute Pressure Value

LIN,PWM,CAN _Communication

Warning Mechanism: >Absolute Pressure Change

Pressure Change Ratio (Settable)

6~18V _Operating Voltage

<30mA(连续模式Continuous Mode)_Operating Current

<100uA (ECO 2s)

30ms (Continuous Mode)_Response Time

1s, 2s (ECO)

-40~105℃_Operating Temperature

3.2.2 Detection Medium: Suspended Particle Concentration

LIN,PWM,CAN _Communication

>5000μg/m³ _Warning Mechanism:

8~16V _Operating Voltage

<30mA(ContinuousMode)_Operating Current

<500uA(ECO 12s)

1s_Response Time


-40~85℃_Operating Temperature


The temperature sensors distributed and installed in each battery cell or battery pack - senses, monitors, and transmits the temperature value of the battery to ESS in real time. When the temperature is abnormal and exceeds the setting point limit, the BMS will comprehensively judge the conduction changes of other sensors, then trigger executor to timely stop the charging and discharging operations of the battery.


ESS cabinets are flammable and explosive equipment with high energy density. Entering the cabinets by unprofessional personnel may cause unpredictable injury and risk. Therefore, remote real-time and automatic monitoring of the ESS cabinet door is particularly important, and it can also prevent unauthorized personnel from trespassing inside the cabinet to cause trouble and damage. Install a limit switch on the door of the cabinet, monitor the opening and closing status of the cabinet door, and trigger warning in case of abnormality.

110VDC/1A _Rated Voltage/Currentv

100万次_Mechanical Lifev

IP67 _IP Level


As automatic control and conversion circuits, various types of relays (Including electromagnetic relays and solid-state relays) and high-voltage DC contactors that play a protection role are also common electrical control components in ESS.


MOSFET and modules for various master and slave control modules in ESS, including rectifier bridges that convert AC power to DC power, FRD-fast recovery diodes for switching power supplies, IGBT transistors and modules that achieve power conversion and control.

八、ESS Connectors

Connectors for outdoor portable power station, liquid cooled industrial ESS, high-pressure stacked-design residential ESS, ESS modules, BMS master/slave control boards, PCS power conversion systems, etc.

IP67/IP69K_Ingress Protectionv

3A/5A/10A/17A/30A..._Rated Currentv

12pin/30pin/40pin..._Physical Interface Connector


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